A principle approach to design thinking and development

None documented

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WAI: Strategies, guidelines, resources to make the Web accessible to people with disabilities

Inclusive design, design for all, digital inclusion, universal usability, and similar efforts address a broad range of issues in making technology available to and usable by all people whatever their abilities, age, economic situation, education, geographic location, language, etc.

Accessibility focuses on people with disabilities — people with auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, and visual impairments. The documents below explore some of the overlaps between inclusive design and web accessibility, and help managers, designers, developers, policy makers, researchers, and others optimize their efforts in these overlapping areas.

WAI develops...

  • guidelines widely regarded as the international standard for Web accessibility
  • support materials to help understand and implement We
  • Standards
  • Testing
  • Tutorials
  • Guidance
  • Essential Components of Web Accessibility
    • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
    • Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI ARIA)
    • Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
    • User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)




Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible.

Following these guidelines will make content accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, cognitive limitations, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity, and combinations of these.

These guidelines address accessibility of web content on desktops, laptops, tablets, and mobile devices. Following these guidelines will also often make your Web content more usable to users in general.


None documented

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Task Forces

Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (AG WG / WCAG)


Essential Components of Web Accessibility
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
  • Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
  • User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)


ARIA: Defines a way to make Web content and Web applications more accessible to people with disabilities.

Accessibility of web content requires semantic information about widgets, structures, and behaviors, in order to allow assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities.

This specification provides an ontology of roles, states, and properties that define accessible user interface elements and can be used to improve the accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications. These semantics are designed to allow an author to properly convey user interface behaviors and structural information to assistive technologies in document-level markup.

  • The Roles Model
    • Abstract Roles
    • Widget Roles
    • Document Structure
    • Landmark Roles
  • Supported States and Properties
  • Managing Focus
  • Conformance

Material Design - Google

Material Design: a unified system that combines theory, resources, and tools for crafting digital experiences.

Challenges to create a visual language for our users that synthesizes the classic principles of good design with the innovation and possibility of technology and science. This is material design. This spec is a living document that will be updated as we continue to develop the tenets and specifics of material design.

Material is the metaphor

A material metaphor is the unifying theory of a rationalized space and a system of motion. The material is grounded in tactile reality, inspired by the study of paper and ink, yet technologically advanced and open to imagination and magic.

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Human Interface Guidelines - Apple

Design Principles: To maximize impact and reach, keep the following principles in mind as you imagine your app’s identity.

As an app designer, you have the opportunity to deliver an extraordinary product that rises to the top of the App Store charts. To do so, you'll need to meet high expectations for quality and functionality.

Three primary themes differentiate iOS from other platforms:

  • Clarity Throughout the system, text is legible at every size, icons are precise and lucid, adornments are subtle and appropriate, and a sharpened focus on functionality motivates the design. Negative space, color, fonts, graphics, and interface elements subtly highlight important content and convey interactivity.
  • Deference Fluid motion and a crisp, beautiful interface help people understand and interact with content while never competing with it. Content typically fills the entire screen, while translucency and blurring often hint at more. Minimal use of bezels, gradients, and drop shadows keep the interface light and airy, while ensuring that content is paramount.
  • Depth Distinct visual layers and realistic motion convey hierarchy, impart vitality, and facilitate understanding. Touch and discoverability heighten delight and enable access to functionality and additional content without losing context. Transitions provide a sense of depth as you navigate through content.

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Inclusive Design Principles - Microsoft

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

It’s in our mission statement: empower every person on the planet to achieve more. Designing for inclusivity opens up our experiences and reflects how people adapt to the world around them.

Recognize exclusion

Exclusion happens when we solve problems using our own biases. As Microsoft designers, we seek out those exclusions, and use them as opportunities to create new ideas and inclusive designs.

Learn from diversity

Human beings are the real experts in adapting to diversity. Inclusive design puts people in the center from the very start of the process, and those fresh, diverse perspectives are the key to true insight.

Inclusive Design - IBM

At the forefront of the design and development

IBM places accessibility at the forefront of the design and development process so all users have more personal and adaptive experiences.

By developing a deeper understanding of how physical and cognitive disabilities affect the use of a product or service, designers can deliver better human experiences on any device.

Accessibility and design

Accessibility is an integral function of IBM Design Thinking and the IBM Design Language. It is also embedded into IBM Designcamps so newly-hired designers can be fluent in accessibility principles, standards and regulations, methodologies, and the newest technologies.

Empathy in design

Understanding all users, including people with disabilities, the aging population, or anyone facing a “situational” disability, helps designers and developers ensure that each feature has a plan for accessibility.