Introduction

Learn about the different types of disabilities

In this section, you will learn about the different types of disabilities as well as what you need to consider for each disability as a web designer, developer, quality assurance professional, or project manager. In addition, there are scenarios presented for some disabilities to aid UX designers in understanding requirements for users with disabilities.

Summary

The goal is to use accessibility to drive innovation

There are real challenges to solve in accessibility. Let those challenges drive innovation. Let them be the inspiration that lifts the design to the next level. Don't be satisfied with "good enough" or compliant. Think creatively. Think inclusively. Always design with accessibility in mind.

Vision

Vision impairment

Any situation that prevents a person from fully perceiving something visual. This could be due to:

  • Bright light creating glare or reflections on a screen,
  • Illness or injury that affects vision,
  • Short/long sightedness or other conditions that require spectacles,
  • Colour blindness where one or more colours are perceived less or not at all,
  • Low vision that cannot be corrected only with spectacles,
  • Conditions such as macular degeneration or cataracts where some areas of vision are obscured or blurred,
  • Or blindness where little or nothing is perceived.

Summary

Blindness
  • Keyboard
  • Screen reader
  • Braille
  • Name, Role, State, value, ARIA
  • CSS, DOM
  • Navigation methods
Low Vision
  • Zoom
  • Contrast, custom colors
  • Custom Fonts
  • Screen reader
  • Smaller viewport
  • Vision examples
Color Blindness
  • Red/green
  • Red/green/orange/yellow
  • Red/black
  • Other color combinations (rare)
  • Monochromacy

Checklist - Deque

Visual

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Deaf

Hearing impairment

Any situation that prevents a person from fully perceiving something audible. This could be due to:

  • Other noise or a need to mute the volume,
  • Illness or injury that affects hearing,
  • Partial hearing loss that requires a hearing aid,
  • Reduced or restricted hearing that may be muffled or miss certain frequencies,
  • Conditions such as tinnitus where noise is heard though absent from external sound,
  • Or deafness where little or nothing is perceived.

Summary

  • Video captions VS subtitles
  • Sign language VS written language
  • Transcripts

Checklist - Deque

Deaf

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Motor

Motor Disability

Any situation that prevents a person from physically interacting freely. This could be due to:

  • Holding or carrying something,
  • Hands that are too large or small for the input control,
  • Illness or injury that restricts movement or reduces muscle control,
  • Conditions such as arthritis, Parkinson's, hemiplegia, or cerebral palsy that can affect movement or muscle control,
  • Paralysis of limbs or body,
  • Or full or partial absence of limbs.

Summary

  • Sensors (cheek, jaw, eyes)
  • Sip-and-puff, Stick
  • Keyboard, (single) switch
  • Speech recognition

Checklist - Deque

Motor

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Speech

Speech impairment

Summary

  • May also have another disability
  • Mix of assistive technology (AT)

Checklist - Deque

Speech

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Cognitive

Cognitive disabilities

Any situation that affects how a person mentally perceives, understands or processes information. This could be due to:

  • Intoxication or tiredness,
  • Headache, migraine, sleep disorder or other illness,
  • Injury, substance abuse, concussion, amnesia or other brain damage,
  • Neurodiverse conditions such as autism, ADHD and dyslexia,
  • Mental health and memory conditions such as anxiety, PTSD or dementia,
  • or learning and developmental delays.

Summary

  • By far the most common
  • No one way to describe
  • Deficits in different areas
    • Limited Comprehension
    • Low Tolerance for Overload
    • Limited Problem-Solving Skills
    • Short Term Memory Loss
    • Attention Deficit
    • Difficulty Reading (dyslexia)
    • Difficulty with Math

Checklist - Deque

Cognitive

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Seizures

Seizure Disorders

Summary

  • Avoid quick flashes of light

Checklist - Deque

Seizures

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented

Multiple

Multiple disabilities

None documented

Checklist - Deque

Multiple

None documented

Download Summary & Checklist

None documented

Tips & Tricks

None documented

Resources

Specifications

None documented

Examples

None documented

Miscellaneous

None documented

Practice

WCAG Annotations

None documented

Design Annotations

None documented